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UK construction sector downturn eases in December

UK construction total activity index
UK construction total activity index

Latest S&P Global PMI data reveal lowest decline in total UK construction activity for four months

DECEMBER data indicated another solid fall in UK construction activity, although the rate of decline eased to the slowest since the current phase of decline began last September. A sustained slump in house building was the main factor holding back construction output, which survey respondents linked to elevated interest rates and subdued confidence among clients.

At 46.8 in December, the headline S&P Global UK Construction Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) – a seasonally adjusted index tracking changes in total industry activity – was below the neutral 50.0 mark for the fourth month running. However, the index was up from 45.5 in November and the highest for four months.


House building remained the weakest-performing category of construction work in December (index at 41.1), despite the rate of decline easing to its slowest since July 2023. Civil engineering activity (index at 47.0) also posted a softer pace of contraction at the end of last year.

Meanwhile, commercial construction declined only modestly (index at 47.6), but the speed of the downturn accelerated to its fastest since January 2021. Some firms noted that concerns about the domestic economic outlook, alongside elevated borrowing costs, had led to greater caution among clients.

The latest data also indicated somewhat upbeat business expectations at UK construction companies for output levels during the year ahead. Around 41% of the survey panel anticipate an increase in business activity over the course of 2024, while only 17% predict a decline. Anecdotal evidence suggested that subdued forecasts for the UK economy were a key concern, while hopes of reduced interest rates and a turnaround in market confidence were factors cited as likely to boost construction activity.

Tim Moore, economics director at S&P Global Market Intelligence, who compile the survey, said: ‘Construction companies experienced another fall in business activity at the end of 2023 as weak order books meant a lack of new work to replace completed projects. House building was the worst-performing area of construction activity, but even in this segment there were signs that the downturn has started to ease.

‘Elevated borrowing costs and a subsequent slump in market confidence were the main factors leading to falling sales volumes across the construction sector in the second half of 2023. Survey respondents also continued to cite worries about the broader UK economic outlook, especially in relation to prospects for commercial construction.

‘However, expectations of falling interest rates during the months ahead appear to have supported confidence levels among construction companies. December data indicated that 41% of construction firms predict a rise in business activity over the course of 2024, while only 17% forecast a decline. This contrasted with negative sentiment overall at the same time a year earlier.’


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